An HTTP handler for urllib2 that supports HTTP 1.1 and keepalive.
>>> import urllib2
>>> from keepalive import HTTPHandler
>>> keepalive_handler = HTTPHandler()
>>> opener = urllib2.build_opener(keepalive_handler)
>>> fo = urllib2.urlopen('http://www.python.org')
If a connection to a given host is requested, and all of the existing
connections are still in use, another connection will be opened. If
the handler tries to use an existing connection but it fails in some
way, it will be closed and removed from the pool.
To remove the handler, simply re-run build_opener with no arguments, and
install that opener.
You can explicitly close connections by using the close_connection()
method of the returned file-like object (described below) or you can
use the handler methods:
NOTE: using the close_connection and close_all methods of the handler
should be done with care when using multiple threads.
* there is nothing that prevents another thread from creating new
connections immediately after connections are closed
* no checks are done to prevent in-use connections from being closed
EXTRA ATTRIBUTES AND METHODS
Upon a status of 200, the object returned has a few additional
attributes and methods, which should not be used if you want to
remain consistent with the normal urllib2-returned objects:
close_connection() - close the connection to the host
readlines() - you know, readlines()
status - the return status (ie 404)
reason - english translation of status (ie 'File not found')
If you want the best of both worlds, use this inside an
>>> try: status = fo.status
>>> except AttributeError: status = None
Unfortunately, these are ONLY there if status == 200, so it's not
easy to distinguish between non-200 responses. The reason is that
urllib2 tries to do clever things with error codes 301, 302, 401,
and 407, and it wraps the object upon return.
For python versions earlier than 2.4, you can avoid this fancy error
handling by setting the module-level global HANDLE_ERRORS to zero.
You see, prior to 2.4, it's the HTTP Handler's job to determine what
to handle specially, and what to just pass up. HANDLE_ERRORS == 0
means "pass everything up". In python 2.4, however, this job no
longer belongs to the HTTP Handler and is now done by a NEW handler,
HTTPErrorProcessor. Here's the bottom line:
python version < 2.4
HANDLE_ERRORS == 1 (default) pass up 200, treat the rest as
HANDLE_ERRORS == 0 pass everything up, error processing is
left to the calling code
python version >= 2.4
HANDLE_ERRORS == 1 pass up 200, treat the rest as errors
HANDLE_ERRORS == 0 (default) pass everything up, let the
other handlers (specifically,
HTTPErrorProcessor) decide what to do
In practice, setting the variable either way makes little difference
in python 2.4, so for the most consistent behavior across versions,
you probably just want to use the defaults, which will give you
exceptions on errors.
|DEBUG = None|
HANDLE_ERRORS = 0